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What is a technology stack and which should you choose for your mobile app? A technology stack consists of the programming languages, platforms, databases, interface design tools, and test environments needed to develop an app.
Why is it so important to choose a convenient technology stack for your mobile app? The technology stack you choose can influence the efficiency of app development, the cost to design your app, and the time needed to create it.
The backend and frontend development of your application directly depend on the tech stack you choose. The most important components that make up a technology stack are:
- The development platform, which combines libraries and interfaces
- The front end, which allows the user to interact with the app
- The back end, which takes user information, processes it, and gives results
So what technology stack is best for developing your app? To get started, you need to understand that there are different types of mobile apps:
- Native apps
- Hybrid apps
- Cross-platform apps
Let’s have a look at their advantages and the most convenient tech stacks for each type.
Whether you’re a startup or a well-developed business, a native app can be useful for you. Frameworks for developing native apps offer security and efficienc, and a native application is one of the most important resources for improving the productivity of your business.
Native applications provide a high degree of device compatibility, usability, and security. Native platforms can integrate a device’s hardware and software capabilities into the application without relying on external APIs.
Let’s look at the tech stacks you might choose when developing native apps for the iOS and Android platforms.
Technology stack for iOS app development
If you’re planning to make an app for the iOS platform, your development stack will consist of the following technologies:
- Objective-C or Swift. Objective-C and Swift are the most popular programming languages for creating iOS mobile apps. Objective-C is a general-purpose object-oriented programming language that replaced C. It was popular before the launch of Swift. Today, Swift is Apple’s universal programming language.
- Xcode or AppCode. If you’re using Swift, you’ll need Apple Xcode to develop your application. Xcode is Apple’s official integrated development environment (IDE) for creating iOS, iPadOS, and macOS applications.
In addition Xcode has Git repositories that graphically create user interfaces and debug tools. This user interface tool is used to create native and gaming applications.
Technology stack for Android app development
For Android app development, you’ll need a different technology stack. Let’s look at the main tools and programming languages for Android development:
- Java or Kotlin. Java is the most widely used programming language in the world. As an open-source language, it offers developers rich libraries and development tools. Giants such as Google and Yahoo continue to improve Java.
On the other hand, Kotlin has become a more stable option for Android Studio. There are several limitations in Java that interfere with API development. Kotlin undoubtedly improves on existing Java models. In fact, this excellent and functional language requires less code than Java.
- Android Studio. Android Studio is an IDE that offers tools for coding, debugging, productivity, and instant system deployment. It also forces developers to use various debugging tools on a device, provides a user interface designer, and offers script automation support.
Pros of native app development
What are the main pros of native app development and the associated technology stacks?
- High performance
- Solid UX
- High security
- Offline functionality
- Device notifications
- Gesture control
- Access to device hardware/software
Hybrid app development allows you to create an app faster for both iOS and Android. But you need to understand that this type of app can’t provide the same user experience and functionality as a native app.
Pros of hybrid app development
- Ability to use the same code on both platforms
- Multi-platform compatibility
- Reduced development time and cost
- Access to various hardware capabilities
Cross-platform apps use a single code base for Android, iOS, Windows, and other platforms. Companies prefer to develop cross-platform mobile applications to reach large audiences with lower development costs. Here are some of the technologies you can use to develop a cross-platform app:
- Xamarin is a Microsoft-supported cross-platform mobile app development tool that uses the C# programming language. Using Xamarin, developers can create mobile applications for multiple platforms that can share more than 90% of the code base.
Application back end
Backend development involves writing code that runs on the server. This code is responsible for the application’s business logic. What are the best programming languages for backend development?
- Java is a general-purpose object-oriented and parallel programming language. It uses the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), a runtime environment for running Java code and Java applications. The JVM translates Java bytecode into a language that can be interpreted by machines.
- Ruby is an open-source, object-oriented, dynamic, and reflective language. Like Java, it’s platform-independent and therefore can run on Windows, Mac, and all versions of Linux. Ruby follows the principle of least astonishment, which means it reduces confusion for experienced users.
You’ve learned about all the best tech stacks for different types of apps. It’s very important to select the most convenient technology stack for your type of application. This will allow you to provide the best user experience and increase the efficiency of app development.
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